Advertisement

Management of Sleep and Fatigue in Gastrointestinal Patients

Published:October 19, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gtc.2022.07.007

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Gastroenterology Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Worley S.L.
        The extraordinary importance of sleep: the detrimental effects of inadequate sleep on health and public safety drive an explosion of sleep research.
        Pharm Ther. 2018; 43: 758
        • Freeman D.
        • Sheaves B.
        • Waite F.
        • et al.
        Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders.
        Lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7: 628-637
        • Hirshkowitz M.
        • Whiton K.
        • Albert S.M.
        • et al.
        National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary.
        Sleep health. 2015; 1: 40-43
        • Ohayon M.M.
        • Carskadon M.A.
        • Guilleminault C.
        • et al.
        Meta-analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old age in healthy individuals: developing normative sleep values across the human lifespan.
        Sleep. 2004; 27: 1255-1273
        • Liu Y.
        • Wheaton A.G.
        • Chapman D.P.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of healthy sleep duration among adults—United States, 2014.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016; 65: 137-141
        • Krueger P.M.
        • Friedman E.M.
        Sleep duration in the United States: a cross-sectional population-based study.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 169: 1052-1063
        • Grandner M.A.
        • Chakravorty S.
        • Perlis M.L.
        • et al.
        Habitual sleep duration associated with self-reported and objectively determined cardiometabolic risk factors.
        Sleep Med. 2014; 15: 42-50
        • Buman M.P.
        • Phillips B.A.
        • Youngstedt S.D.
        • et al.
        Does nighttime exercise really disturb sleep? Results from the 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll.
        Sleep Med. 2014; 15: 755-761
        • Ballou S.
        • Alhassan E.
        • Hon E.
        • et al.
        Sleep disturbances are commonly reported among patients presenting to a gastroenterology clinic.
        Dig Dis Sci. 2018; 63: 2983-2991
        • Ananthakrishnan A.N.
        • Long M.D.
        • Martin C.F.
        • et al.
        Sleep disturbance and risk of active disease in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
        Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013; 11: 965-971
        • Vela M.F.
        • Kramer J.R.
        • Richardson P.A.
        • et al.
        Poor sleep quality and obstructive sleep apnea in patients with GERD and Barrett's esophagus.
        Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014; 26: 346-352
        • Lacy B.E.
        • Everhart K.
        • Crowell M.D.
        Functional dyspepsia is associated with sleep disorders.
        Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011; 9: 410-414
        • Salwen-Deremer J.K.
        • Smith M.T.
        • Haskell H.G.
        • et al.
        Poor Sleep in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is Reflective of Distinct Sleep Disorders.
        Dig Dis Sci. 2021; : 1-12
        • Keefer L.
        • Stepanski E.J.
        • Ranjbaran Z.
        • et al.
        An initial report of sleep disturbance in inactive inflammatory bowel disease.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2006; 2: 409-416
        • Ranjbaran Z.
        • Keefer L.
        • Farhadi A.
        • et al.
        Impact of sleep disturbances in inflammatory bowel disease.
        J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007; 22: 1748-1753
        • Patel A.
        • Hasak S.
        • Cassell B.
        • et al.
        Effects of disturbed sleep on gastrointestinal and somatic pain symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016; 44: 246-258
        • Buchanan D.T.
        • Cain K.
        • Heitkemper M.
        • et al.
        Sleep measures predict next-day symptoms in women with irritable bowel syndrome.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2014; 10: 1003-1009
        • Uemura R.
        • Fujiwara Y.
        • Iwakura N.
        • et al.
        Sleep disturbances in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease and their impact on disease flare.
        SpringerPlus. 2016; 5: 1792
        • Conley S.
        • Jeon S.
        • Lehner V.
        • et al.
        Sleep Characteristics and Rest–Activity Rhythms Are Associated with Gastrointestinal Symptoms Among Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
        Dig Dis Sci. 2020; : 1-9
        • Singh P.
        • Ballou S.
        • Rangan V.
        • et al.
        Clinical and Psychological Factors Predict Outcome in Patients With Functional Dyspepsia: A Prospective Study.
        Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022; 20: 1251-1258.e1
        • Mai E.
        • Buysse D.J.
        Insomnia: prevalence, impact, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and evaluation.
        Sleep Med Clin. 2008; 3: 167-174
        • Lichstein K.
        • Durrence H.
        • Taylor D.
        • et al.
        Quantitative criteria for insomnia.
        Behav Res Ther. 2003; 41: 427-445
        • Jung H-k
        • Choung R.S.
        • Talley N.J.
        Gastroesophageal reflux disease and sleep disorders: evidence for a causal link and therapeutic implications.
        J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010; 16: 22
        • Peppard P.E.
        • Young T.
        • Barnet J.H.
        • et al.
        Increased prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in adults.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2013; 177: 1006-1014
        • Punjabi N.M.
        The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep apnea.
        Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008; 5: 136-143
        • Dong Z.
        • Xu X.
        • Wang C.
        • et al.
        Association of overweight and obesity with obstructive sleep apnoea: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Obes Med. 2020; 17: 100185
        • Modolell I.
        • Esteller E.
        • Segarra F.
        • et al.
        Proton-pump inhibitors in sleep-related breathing disorders: clinical response and predictive factors.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011; 23: 852-858
        • Al Momani L.
        • Alomari M.
        • Patel A.
        • et al.
        2875 The Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.
        Official J Am Coll Gastroenterol ACG. 2019; 114: S1576-S1577
        • Ghiasi F.
        • Amra B.
        • Sebghatollahi V.
        • et al.
        Association of irritable bowel syndrome and sleep apnea in patients referred to sleep laboratory.
        J Res Med Sci. 2017; 22: 72
        • Ohayon M.M.
        Epidemiological overview of sleep disorders in the general population.
        Sleep Med Res. 2011; 2: 1-9
        • Mosli M.H.
        • Bukhari L.M.
        • Khoja A.A.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease and restless leg syndrome.
        Neurosciences (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). 2020; 25: 301-307
        • Becker J.
        • Berger F.
        • Schindlbeck K.A.
        • et al.
        Restless legs syndrome is a relevant comorbidity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
        Int J colorectal Dis. 2018; 33: 955-962
        • Guo J.
        • Pei L.
        • Chen L.
        • et al.
        Bidirectional association between irritable bowel syndrome and restless legs syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Sleep Med. 2021; 77: 104-111
        • Abbott S.M.
        • Reid K.J.
        • Zee P.C.
        Circadian Disorders of the Sleep-Wake Cycle.
        in: Kryger M. Roth T. Dement W.C. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 6th edition. Elsevier, Philadelphia2017: 414-423
        • Chrobak A.A.
        • Nowakowski J.
        • Zwolińska-Wcisło M.
        • et al.
        Associations between chronotype, sleep disturbances and seasonality with fatigue and inflammatory bowel disease symptoms.
        Chronobiol Int. 2018; 35: 1142-1152
        • Kivelä L.
        • Papadopoulos M.R.
        • Antypa N.
        Chronotype and psychiatric disorders.
        Curr Sleep Med Rep. 2018; 4: 94-103
        • Glynn H.
        • Möller S.P.
        • Wilding H.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and Impact of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Systematic Review.
        Dig Dis Sci. 2021; 66: 4109-4119
        • Park S.H.
        • Videlock E.J.
        • Shih W.
        • et al.
        Adverse childhood experiences are associated with irritable bowel syndrome and gastrointestinal symptom severity.
        Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016; 28: 1252-1260
        • Ng Q.X.
        • Soh A.Y.S.
        • Loke W.
        • et al.
        Systematic review with meta-analysis: The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and irritable bowel syndrome.
        J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019; 34: 68-73
        • Graff L.A.
        • Vincent N.
        • Walker J.R.
        • et al.
        A population-based study of fatigue and sleep difficulties in inflammatory bowel disease.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010; 17: 1882-1889
        • Shen J.
        • Barbera J.
        • Shapiro C.M.
        Distinguishing sleepiness and fatigue: focus on definition and measurement.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2006; 10: 63-76
        • Meng H.
        • Hale L.
        • Friedberg F.
        Prevalence and predictors of fatigue among middle-aged and older adults: evidence from the Health and Retirement study.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010; 58: 2033
        • Bültmann U.
        • Kant I.
        • Kasl S.V.
        • et al.
        Fatigue and psychological distress in the working population: psychometrics, prevalence, and correlates.
        J Psychosom Res. 2002; 52: 445-452
        • Cullen W.
        • Kearney Y.
        • Bury G.
        Prevalence of fatigue in general practice.
        Irish J Med Sci. 2002; 171: 10-12
        • Simren M.
        • Svedlund J.
        • Posserud I.
        • et al.
        Predictors of subjective fatigue in chronic gastrointestinal disease.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008; 28: 638-647
        • Minderhoud I.M.
        • Samsom M.
        • Oldenburg B.
        Crohn’s disease, fatigue, and infliximab: is there a role for cytokines in the pathogenesis of fatigue?.
        World J Gastroenterol. 2007; 13: 2089
        • Jelsness-Jørgensen L.-P.
        • Bernklev T.
        • Henriksen M.
        • et al.
        Chronic fatigue is more prevalent in patients with inflammatory bowel disease than in healthy controls.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011; 17: 1564-1572
        • Van Langenberg D.
        • Gibson P.R.
        Systematic review: fatigue in inflammatory bowel disease.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 32: 131-143
        • Han C.J.
        • Yang G.S.
        Fatigue in irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of pooled frequency and severity of fatigue.
        Asian Nurs Res. 2016; 10: 1-10
        • Lim E.-J.
        • Ahn Y.-C.
        • Jang E.-S.
        • et al.
        Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME).
        J translational Med. 2020; 18: 1-15
        • Vogelaar L.
        • de Haar C.
        • Aerts B.R.
        • et al.
        Fatigue in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is associated with distinct differences in immune parameters.
        Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2017; 10: 83
        • Van Langenberg D.
        • Gatta P.D.
        • Hill B.
        • et al.
        Delving into disability in Crohn's disease: dysregulation of molecular pathways may explain skeletal muscle loss in Crohn's disease.
        J Crohn's Colitis. 2014; 8: 626-634
        • Sweeney L.
        • Moss-Morris R.
        • Czuber-Dochan W.
        • et al.
        ‘It’s about willpower in the end. You’ve got to keep going’: a qualitative study exploring the experience of pain in inflammatory bowel disease.
        Br J pain. 2019; 13: 201-213
        • Han C.J.
        • Jarrett M.E.
        • Heitkemper M.M.
        Relationships between abdominal pain and fatigue with psychological distress as a mediator in women with irritable bowel syndrome.
        Gastroenterol Nurs. 2020; 43: 28
        • Ali T.
        • Choe J.
        • Awab A.
        • et al.
        Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders.
        World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19: 9231
        • Irwin M.R.
        • Olmstead R.
        • Carroll J.E.
        Sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and experimental sleep deprivation.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2016; 80: 40-52
        • Vogelaar L.
        • van’t Spijker A.
        • van Tilburg A.J.
        • et al.
        Determinants of fatigue in Crohn’s disease patients.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013; 25: 246-251
        • van Langenberg D.R.
        • Gibson P.R.
        Factors associated with physical and cognitive fatigue in patients with Crohn's disease: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014; 20: 115-125
        • Van Langenberg D.
        • Papandony M.
        • Gibson P.
        Sleep and physical activity measured by accelerometry in Crohn's disease.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015; 41: 991-1004
        • Spiegel B.M.
        The burden of IBS: looking at metrics.
        Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2009; 11: 265-269
        • Banovic I.
        • Gilibert D.
        • Jebrane A.
        • et al.
        Personality and fatigue perception in a sample of IBD outpatients in remission: A preliminary study.
        J Crohn's Colitis. 2012; 6: 571-577
        • Graff L.A.
        • Clara I.
        • Walker J.R.
        • et al.
        Changes in fatigue over 2 years are associated with activity of inflammatory bowel disease and psychological factors.
        Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013; 11: 1140-1146
        • van Langenberg D.R.
        • Yelland G.W.
        • Robinson S.R.
        • et al.
        Cognitive impairment in Crohn’s disease is associated with systemic inflammation, symptom burden and sleep disturbance.
        United Eur Gastroenterol J. 2017; 5: 579-587
        • Stepanski E.J.
        • Wyatt J.K.
        Use of sleep hygiene in the treatment of insomnia.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2003; 7: 215-225
        • Irish L.A.
        • Kline C.E.
        • Gunn H.E.
        • et al.
        The role of sleep hygiene in promoting public health: A review of empirical evidence.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2015; 22: 23-36
        • Mastin D.F.
        • Bryson J.
        • Corwyn R.
        Assessment of sleep hygiene using the Sleep Hygiene Index.
        J Behav Med. 2006; 29: 223-227
        • Chung K.-F.
        • Lee C.-T.
        • Yeung W.-F.
        • et al.
        Sleep hygiene education as a treatment of insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Fam Pract. 2018; 35: 365-375
        • Taylor D.J.
        • Pruiksma K.E.
        Cognitive and behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in psychiatric populations: a systematic review.
        Int Rev Psychiatry. 2014; 26: 205-213
        • Edinger J.D.
        • Arnedt J.T.
        • Bertisch S.M.
        • et al.
        Behavioral and psychological treatments for chronic insomnia disorder in adults: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine systematic review, meta-analysis and GRADE assessment.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2021; 17: 263-298
        • Qaseem A.
        • Kansagara D.
        • Forciea M.A.
        • et al.
        Management of chronic insomnia disorder in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians.
        Ann Intern Med. 2016; 165: 125-133
        • Jacobs G.D.
        • Pace-Schott E.F.
        • Stickgold R.
        • et al.
        Cognitive behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy for insomnia: a randomized controlled trial and direct comparison.
        Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164: 1888-1896
        • Smith M.T.
        • Perlis M.L.
        • Park A.
        • et al.
        Comparative meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy and behavior therapy for persistent insomnia.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2002; 159: 5-11
        • Finan P.H.
        • Buenaver L.F.
        • Runko V.T.
        • et al.
        Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia and Chronic Pain.
        Sleep Mdicine Clin. 2014; 9: 261-274
        • Smith M.
        • Huang M.
        • Manber R.
        Cognitive behavior therapy for chronic insomnia occurring within the context of medical and psychiatric disorders.
        Clin Psychol Rev. 2005; 25: 559-611
        • Trauer J.M.
        • Qian M.Y.
        • Doyle J.S.
        • et al.
        Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Ann Intern Med. 2015; 163: 191-204
        • Irwin M.R.
        • Cole J.C.
        • Nicassio P.M.
        Comparative meta-analysis of behavioral interventions for insomnia and their efficacy in middle-aged adults and in older adults 55+ years of age.
        Health Psychol. 2006; 25: 3
        • van Straten A.
        • van der Zweerde T.
        • Kleiboer A.
        • et al.
        Cognitive and behavioral therapies in the treatment of insomnia: a meta-analysis.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2018; 38: 3-16
        • Cavanagh R.C.
        • Mackey R.
        • Bridges L.
        • et al.
        The Use of Digital Health Technologies to Manage Insomnia in Military Populations.
        J Technology Behav Sci. 2020; 5: 61-69
        • Gunn H.E.
        • Tutek J.
        • Buysse D.J.
        Brief behavioral treatment of insomnia.
        Sleep Med Clin. 2019; 14: 235-243
        • Buysse D.J.
        • Germain A.
        • Moul D.E.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of brief behavioral treatment for chronic insomnia in older adults.
        Arch Intern Med. 2011; 171: 887-895
        • Tang N.K.
        • Lereya S.T.
        • Boulton H.
        • et al.
        Nonpharmacological treatments of insomnia for long-term painful conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of patient-reported outcomes in randomized controlled trials.
        Sleep. 2015; 38: 1751-1764
        • Smith M.T.
        • Finan P.H.
        • Buenaver L.F.
        • et al.
        Cognitive–behavioral therapy for insomnia in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, active placebo–controlled clinical trial.
        Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015; 67: 1221-1233
        • Vitiello M.V.
        • Rybarczyk B.
        • Von Korff M.
        • et al.
        Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep and decreases pain in older adults with co-morbid insomnia and osteoarthritis.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2009; 5: 355-362
        • McCurry S.M.
        • Shortreed S.M.
        • Von Korff M.
        • et al.
        Who benefits from CBT for insomnia in primary care? Important patient selection and trial design lessons from longitudinal results of the Lifestyles trial.
        Sleep. 2014; 37: 299-308
        • Salwen J.K.
        • Smith M.T.
        • Finan P.H.
        Mid-treatment sleep duration predicts clinically significant knee osteoarthritis pain reduction at 6 months: effects from a behavioral sleep medicine clinical trial.
        Sleep. 2017; 40: zsw064
        • Martínez M.P.
        • Miró E.
        • Sánchez A.I.
        • et al.
        Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia and sleep hygiene in fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.
        J Behav Med. 2014; 37: 683-697
        • Jungquist C.R.
        • O’Brien C.
        • Matteson-Rusby S.
        • et al.
        The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia in patients with chronic pain.
        Sleep Med. 2010; 11: 302-309
        • Lerman S.F.
        • Finan P.H.
        • Smith M.T.
        • et al.
        Psychological interventions that target sleep reduce pain catastrophizing in knee osteoarthritis.
        Pain. 2017; 158: 2189-2195
        • Lami M.J.
        • Martínez M.P.
        • Miró E.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of combined cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia and pain in patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.
        Cogn Ther Res. 2018; 42: 63-79
        • Dombrovski A.Y.
        • Cyranowski J.M.
        • Mulsant B.H.
        • et al.
        Which symptoms predict recurrence of depression in women treated with maintenance interpersonal psychotherapy?.
        Depress anxiety. 2008; 25: 1060-1066
        • Franzen P.L.
        • Buysse D.J.
        Sleep disturbances and depression: risk relationships for subsequent depression and therapeutic implications.
        Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2008; 10: 473
        • Buysse D.J.
        • Angst J.
        • Gamma A.
        • et al.
        Prevalence, course, and comorbidity of insomnia and depression in young adults.
        Sleep. 2008; 31: 473-480
        • Ballesio A.
        • Aquino M.R.J.V.
        • Feige B.
        • et al.
        The effectiveness of behavioural and cognitive behavioural therapies for insomnia on depressive and fatigue symptoms: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2018; 37: 114-129
        • Cunningham J.E.
        • Shapiro C.M.
        Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) to treat depression: A systematic review.
        J Psychosom Res. 2018; 106: 1-12
        • Irwin M.R.
        • Olmstead R.
        • Carrillo C.
        • et al.
        Cognitive behavioral therapy vs. Tai Chi for late life insomnia and inflammatory risk: a randomized controlled comparative efficacy trial.
        Sleep. 2014; 37: 1543-1552
        • Heffner K.L.
        • France C.R.
        • Ashrafioun L.
        • et al.
        Clinical pain-related outcomes and inflammatory cytokine response to pain following insomnia improvement in adults with knee osteoarthritis.
        Clin J Pain. 2018; 34: 1133-1140
        • Irwin M.R.
        • Olmstead R.
        • Breen E.C.
        • et al.
        Cognitive behavioral therapy and tai chi reverse cellular and genomic markers of inflammation in late-life insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2015; 78: 721-729
        • Selvanathan J.
        • Pham C.
        • Nagappa M.
        • et al.
        Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Patients with Chronic Pain-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2021; 60: 101460
        • Benz F.
        • Knoop T.
        • Ballesio A.
        • et al.
        The efficacy of cognitive and behavior therapies for insomnia on daytime symptoms: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.
        Clin Psychol Rev. 2020; 80: 101873
        • Squires L.R.
        • Rash J.A.
        • Fawcett J.
        • et al.
        Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia on Subjective and Actigraphy-Measured Sleep and Comorbid Symptoms in Cancer Survivors.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2022; 63: 101615
        • Garland S.N.
        • Johnson J.A.
        • Savard J.
        • et al.
        Sleeping well with cancer: a systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer patients.
        Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014; 10: 1113-1124
        • Hashash J.G.
        • Knisely M.R.
        • Germain A.
        • et al.
        Brief Behavioral Therapy and Bupropion for Sleep and Fatigue in Young Adults with Crohn’s Disease: An Exploratory Open Trial Study.
        Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022; 20: 96-104
        • Siengsukon C.F.
        • Alshehri M.
        • Williams C.
        • et al.
        Feasibility and treatment effect of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in individuals with multiple sclerosis: A pilot randomized controlled trial.
        Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020; 40: 101958
        • Chotinaiwattarakul W.
        • O'Brien L.M.
        • Fan L.
        • et al.
        Fatigue, tiredness, and lack of energy improve with treatment for OSA.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2009; 5: 222-227
        • Vitiello M.V.
        • McCurry S.M.
        • Shortreed S.M.
        • et al.
        Short-term improvement in insomnia symptoms predicts long-term improvements in sleep, pain, and fatigue in older adults with comorbid osteoarthritis and insomnia.
        Pain. 2014; 155: 1547-1554
        • Yancey J.R.
        • Thomas S.M.
        Chronic fatigue syndrome: diagnosis and treatment.
        Am Fam Physician. 2012; 86: 741-746
        • Castell B.D.
        • Kazantzis N.
        • Moss-Morris R.E.
        Cognitive behavioral therapy and graded exercise for chronic fatigue syndrome: A meta-analysis.
        Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2011; 18: 311
        • Van Heest K.N.
        • Mogush A.R.
        • Mathiowetz V.G.
        Effects of a one-to-one fatigue management course for people with chronic conditions and fatigue.
        Am J Occup Ther. 2017; 71 (7104100020p1-p9)
        • Blikman L.J.
        • Huisstede B.M.
        • Kooijmans H.
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of energy conservation treatment in reducing fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013; 94: 1360-1376
        • Morgenthaler T.I.
        • Auerbach S.
        • Casey K.R.
        • et al.
        Position paper for the treatment of nightmare disorder in adults: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine position paper.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2018; 14: 1041-1055
        • Krakow B.
        • Zadra A.
        Clinical management of chronic nightmares: imagery rehearsal therapy.
        Behav Sleep Med. 2006; 4: 45-70
        • Duffy J.F.
        • Abbott S.M.
        • Burgess H.J.
        • et al.
        Workshop report. Circadian rhythm sleep–wake disorders: gaps and opportunities.
        Sleep. 2021; 44: zsaa281
        • Barion A.
        • Zee P.C.
        A clinical approach to circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
        Sleep Med. 2007; 8: 566-577
        • Trotti L.M.
        • Becker L.A.
        Iron for the treatment of restless legs syndrome.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019; 1 (CD007834)
        • Patil S.P.
        • Ayappa I.A.
        • Caples S.M.
        • et al.
        Treatment of adult obstructive sleep apnea with positive airway pressure: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2019; 15: 335-343
        • Srijithesh P.
        • Aghoram R.
        • Goel A.
        • et al.
        Positional therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019; 5 (CD010990)
        • Nakamura F.
        • Kuribayashi S.
        • Tanaka F.
        • et al.
        Impact of improvement of sleep disturbance on symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia.
        BMC Gastroenterol. 2021; 21: 1-10
        • Ballou S.
        • Katon J.
        • Rangan V.
        • et al.
        Brief behavioral therapy for insomnia in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study.
        Dig Dis Sci. 2020; 65: 3260-3270
        • Salwen-Deremer J.K.
        • Smith M.T.
        • Aschbrenner K.A.
        • et al.
        A pilot feasibility trial of cognitive–behavioural therapy for insomnia in people with inflammatory bowel disease.
        BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 2021; 8: e000805
        • Tawk M.
        • Goodrich S.
        • Kinasewitz G.
        • et al.
        The effect of 1 week of continuous positive airway pressure treatment in obstructive sleep apnea patients with concomitant gastroesophageal reflux.
        Chest. 2006; 130: 1003-1008
        • Stevens B.W.
        • Borren N.Z.
        • Velonias G.
        • et al.
        Vedolizumab therapy is associated with an improvement in sleep quality and mood in inflammatory bowel diseases.
        Dig Dis Sci. 2017; 62: 197-206
        • Riehl M.E.
        • Stidham R.W.
        • Goldstein C.
        • et al.
        Su1591-The Impact of a Gi-Specific Behavioral Intervention on Sleep Quality in Functional Bowel Disorder Patients.
        Gastroenterology. 2018; 154: S-539
        • Chen B.
        • Kim J.J.-W.
        • Zhang Y.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and predictors of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Gastroenterol. 2018; 53: 807-818
        • Weinstock L.B.
        • Walters A.S.
        Restless legs syndrome is associated with irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
        Sleep Med. 2011; 12: 610-613
        • Weinstock L.B.
        • Zeiss S.
        Rifaximin antibiotic treatment for restless legs syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
        Sleep Biol Rhythms. 2012; 10: 145-153
        • Shaheen N.J.
        • Madanick R.D.
        • Alattar M.
        • et al.
        Gastroesophageal reflux disease as an etiology of sleep disturbance in subjects with insomnia and minimal reflux symptoms: a pilot study of prevalence and response to therapy.
        Dig Dis Sci. 2008; 53: 1493-1499
        • Johnson D.A.
        • Le Moigne A.
        • Hugo V.
        • et al.
        Rapid resolution of sleep disturbances related to frequent reflux: effect of esomeprazole 20 mg in two randomized, double-blind, controlled trials.
        Curr Med Res Opin. 2015; 31: 243-250
        • Johnson D.A.
        • Le Moigne A.
        • Li J.
        • et al.
        Analysis of clinical predictors of resolution of sleep disturbance related to frequent nighttime heartburn and acid regurgitation symptoms in individuals taking esomeprazole 20 mg or placebo.
        Clin Drug Invest. 2016; 36: 531-538
        • Aimi M.
        • Komazawa Y.
        • Hamamoto N.
        • et al.
        Effects of omeprazole on sleep disturbance: randomized multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
        Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2014; 5: e57
        • Keefer L.
        • Palsson O.S.
        • Pandolfino J.E.
        Best practice update: incorporating psychogastroenterology into management of digestive disorders.
        Gastroenterology. 2018; 154: 1249-1257
        • Hunt M.G.
        Reclaim your life from IBS: a scientifically proven CBT plan for relief without restrictive diets.
        Routledge, New York, NY2016
        • Hunt M.
        • Miguez S.
        • Dukas B.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of Zemedy, a mobile digital therapeutic for the self-management of irritable bowel syndrome: crossover randomized controlled trial.
        JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 2021; 9: e26152
        • Ritterband L.M.
        • Thorndike F.P.
        • Ingersoll K.S.
        • et al.
        Effect of a web-based cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia intervention with 1-year follow-up: a randomized clinical trial.
        JAMA Psychiatry. 2017; 74: 68-75
        • Kuhn E.
        • Miller K.E.
        • Puran D.
        • et al.
        A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of the Insomnia Coach Mobile App to Assess Its Feasibility, Acceptability, and Potential Efficacy.
        Behav Ther. 2022; 53: 440-457
      1. AHRQ, 2021 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report. AHRQ: Rockville, MD, 2021.

        • Mateo C.M.
        • Williams D.R.
        Racism: a fundamental driver of racial disparities in health-care quality.
        Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2021; 7: 1-2
        • Cheng P.
        • Cuellar R.
        • Johnson D.A.
        • et al.
        Racial discrimination as a mediator of racial disparities in insomnia disorder.
        Sleep health. 2020; 6: 543-549
        • Casagrande S.S.
        • Gary T.L.
        • LaVeist T.A.
        • et al.
        Perceived discrimination and adherence to medical care in a racially integrated community.
        J Gen Intern Med. 2007; 22: 389-395
        • Tormey L.K.
        • Farraye F.A.
        • Paasche-Orlow M.K.
        Understanding health literacy and its impact on delivering care to patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016; 22: 745-751
        • Wright J.P.
        • Edwards G.C.
        • Goggins K.
        • et al.
        Association of health literacy with postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.
        JAMA Surg. 2018; 153: 137-142
        • Pugh M.
        • Perrin P.B.
        • Rybarczyk B.
        • et al.
        Racism, mental health, healthcare provider trust, and medication adherence among black patients in safety-net primary care.
        J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2021; 28: 181-190
        • Sasegbon A.
        • Vasant D.H.
        Understanding racial disparities in the care of patients with irritable bowel syndrome: The need for a unified approach.
        Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2021; 33: e14152
        • Nguyen G.C.
        • LaVeist T.A.
        • Harris M.L.
        • et al.
        Racial disparities in utilization of specialist care and medications in inflammatory bowel disease.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2010; 105: 2202
        • Alcántara C.
        • Cosenzo L.G.
        • McCullough E.
        • et al.
        Cultural adaptations of psychological interventions for prevalent sleep disorders and sleep disturbances: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in the United States.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2021; 56: 101455
        • Johnson D.A.
        • Jackson C.L.
        • Williams N.J.
        • et al.
        Are sleep patterns influenced by race/ethnicity–a marker of relative advantage or disadvantage? Evidence to date.
        Nat Sci Sleep. 2019; 11: 79
        • Foundation N.S.
        International bedroom poll.
        National Sleep Foundation, Washington, DC2013
        • Alger S.E.
        • Brager A.J.
        • Capaldi V.F.
        Challenging the stigma of workplace napping.
        Sleep. 2019; 42: zsz097
      2. It’s time to put the tired Spanish siesta stereotype to bed. BBC, 2017
        • Mindell J.A.
        • Sadeh A.
        • Wiegand B.
        • et al.
        Cross-cultural differences in infant and toddler sleep.
        Sleep Med. 2010; 11: 274-280
        • Hall G.C.N.
        • Ibaraki A.Y.
        • Huang E.R.
        • et al.
        A meta-analysis of cultural adaptations of psychological interventions.
        Behav Ther. 2016; 47: 993-1014
        • Barrera Jr., M.
        • Castro F.G.
        • Strycker L.A.
        • et al.
        Cultural adaptations of behavioral health interventions: a progress report.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 2013; 81: 196
        • Bernal G.
        • Jiménez-Chafey M.I.
        • Domenech Rodríguez M.M.
        Cultural adaptation of treatments: A resource for considering culture in evidence-based practice.
        Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2009; 40: 361